The daily urine volume of normal people is 1000-2000 ml, and the fresh urine discharged normally is light yellow, because the urine contains a yellow urine pigment. However, the color of urine can also vary with the amount of water drunk. Drink water much, make water much, the proportion that the uric pigment place in make water occupies is small, color is shallow; If you drink less water, the proportion of urine pigment in urine will be large, and the color will appear yellow.
The waste produced by the human body every day and the urine pigment discharged are generally relatively constant, so the color of urine will not change much. 96% -99% of urine is water, and most of the rest is waste, such as uric acid, creatinine and so on. But do you know that urine is not necessarily light yellow, it can also be colorful, but the meaning is different.
1. Colorless urine
Colorless urine may be a sign of diabetes, chronic interstitial nephritis and diabetes insipidus. If it is not due to drinking too much water, attention should be paid to differentiation.
2. White urine
White urine is common in pyuria, chyluria, and saline urine.
Purulent urine is caused by severe purulent infection of the urinary tract, and the urine is milky white. Pyuria can be seen in pyelonephritis, cystitis, renal abscess, urethritis, or severe renal tuberculosis.
Chyluria is one of the main symptoms of filariasis, and the urine is as white as milk. Because the chylous fluid (the fluid after fat saponification) absorbed by the intestinal tract can not be drained from the normal lymphatic vessels to the blood circulation, it can only flow back to the lymphatic vessels of the urinary system, resulting in increased pressure in the lymphatic vessels of the urinary system, varicose and rupture of chylous fluid into urine, resulting in chyluria. Chyluria is usually paroxysmal. When there are red blood cells in chyluria, it is called chylous hematuria. Microfilaria, the causative agent of filariasis, are sometimes found in the blood and urine of patients with chylous hematuria.
Saline urine often occurs in children and is common in winter. Urine is like rice soup, mostly containing a large amount of phosphate or urine hydrochloric acid, which is easy to precipitate after placement. If the urine is heated in a bottle, it will become clear immediately. Saline urine is a normal physiological phenomenon. Can be cured without medication, the key is to drink more boiled water.
3. Yellow urine
Yellow urine means that the urine is yellow or dark yellow. The reasons are: eating carrots, taking riboflavin, furazolidone, metronidazole, rhubarb and other Chinese and Western medicine process, urine can appear yellow, once stopped taking, then disappear, no need to worry. Common patients with fever or vomiting and diarrhea symptoms will concentrate and reduce urine because of water excretion with sweat or feces, while urine pigment does not change, so the color of urine appears very yellow.
If the urine is yellow like strong tea, it is not due to the above reasons, but the liver or gallbladder has pathological changes. It turns out that there are usually two ways for bile to flow out: one comes out of the urine and the other comes out of the intestine. When the liver or gallbladder is diseased, the passage of bile to the intestine is cut off, and it can only be excreted from the urine, which is dark yellow because of the increased content of bile. In the early stage of hepatitis, jaundice has not yet appeared, and we can often see the color of urine like strong tea, which is often a sign of hepatitis.
Yellow turbid pyuria is the manifestation of purulent urinary organs.
4. Blue urine
Blue urine can be seen in cholera, typhus, primary hypercalcemia, and vitamin D poisoning. However, this color of urine is mostly related to medication and is not caused by disease. Such as taking diuretic triamterene,
injection of methylene blue injection or taking methylene blue, indigo carmine, creosote, salicylic acid can occur. It can disappear after stopping the drug. This kind of blue urine caused by taking medicine is a normal phenomenon, and there is no need to worry too much.
5. Green urine
Green urine is seen when there is Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the urine, or when bilirubinuria is placed for too long and oxidized into biliverdin. Pale green urine: It is seen after taking a large amount of anti-inflammatory drugs. Dark green urine: same cause as blue urine.
6. Black urine
Black urine is relatively rare and often occurs in patients with acute intravascular hemolysis, such as patients with falciparum malaria, medically known as black urine fever, which is one of the most serious complications of falciparum malaria. There is a large amount of free oxygen and hemoglobin in the plasma of this patient, which is excreted with urine and causes the urine to be dark red or black. In addition, a small number of patients taking levodopa, cresol, phenylhydrazine, etc., can also cause black urine, which will disappear after withdrawal.
7. Tan urine
Brown urine (like the color of soy sauce) can be seen in acute nephritis, acute icteric hepatitis, renal crush injury, extensive burns, hemolytic anemia, blood transfusion, and even after strenuous exercise, the urine can also be like soy sauce. Sometimes the urine is brown after getting up during sleep, which is the characteristic of paroxysmal sleep hemoglobin. If this kind of urine appears after eating green broad beans, we should be alert to broad bean disease. The red blood cells of this patient lack a substance called 6-phosphoglucose dehydrogenase, which is hereditary. Therefore, when eating broad beans after the occurrence of brown urine, and fatigue, dizziness, nausea, skin, eyes yellow, should be sent to the hospital in time to prevent accidents.
8. Red urine
Urine turns red, mostly because there are red blood cells in the urine, which is called hematuria in medicine. The causes of hematuria are very complex. There are hundreds of diseases that can cause hematuria. It is not easy to diagnose it correctly.
If hematuria is accompanied by nosebleed, gum bleeding and skin bleeding, it may be caused by systemic bleeding diseases, such as thrombocytopenia, allergic purpura, hemophilia, or even leukemia. Hematuria is only a manifestation of systemic bleeding.
If hematuria is accompanied by fever, joint swelling and pain, skin damage and multiple organ damage, it may be connective tissue diseases (such as systemic lupus erythematosus, nodular arteritis, etc.).
If hematuria is accompanied by hypertension, edema and proteinuria, it is mostly glomerulonephritis.
If hematuria is accompanied by pain and discomfort in the waist and abdomen, urgency, frequency and pain in urination are mostly urinary tract infections or tuberculosis.
If hematuria is accompanied by waist pain or abdominal cramps on one side, the possibility of kidney and ureteral calculi is the greatest, especially when the pain is restless in bed, mostly ureteral calculi.
If hematuria is accompanied by poor urination, laborious urination and dripping urine, in elderly men, it is mostly prostatic hypertrophy. In middle-aged men, urethral stricture, urethral calculi or bladder tumors should be considered.
Microscopic hematuria visible to the naked eye or prominent in persons over the age of 50, whether male or female, suggests the presence of a pathological change in the urinary system. Especially the sudden occurrence of painless hematuria, most of them are the manifestations of ulceration and bleeding caused by tumor erosion of urine drainage pipeline, a little neglect, will lose the opportunity for effective treatment.
More than 75% of urinary tumors in the elderly are malignant lesions, especially renal parenchymal cell carcinoma, papillary carcinoma of the bladder and transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. Their common feature is hematuria in the whole process of urination. Bleeding from kidney tumors often stops naturally without any treatment, so that patients mistakenly believe that the disease has been cured and stop seeking medical treatment. After an interval of several months or years, when visible hematuria occurs again, the cancer has reached an advanced stage, and most of the cancer cells around the diseased organs or farther away have metastasized.
Because renal hemorrhage is first discharged through the ureter, it often forms a long strip of blood clots as it passes through the ureter. If the bladder is bleeding, the blood clot is large and irregular. Bladder tumor bleeding, the interval between two times is shorter than kidney tumor, and the frequency of urination is slightly higher than normal.
Studies have found that the morbidity of bladder cancer in a large number of smokers is very high, especially for painless hematuria in such elderly people. After the male is over 50 years old, the prostate has different degrees of hyperplasia, which affects the smooth discharge of urine, secondary to bladder mucosa and prostate infection, congestion, and can also cause venous ulceration to produce painless hematuria, which should be distinguished from bladder tumors.
Another common cause of painless hematuria in elderly women is inflammation of the inner urethra. It is characterized by a small amount of blood in the urine, often accompanied by fresh blood on toilet paper; Long-term history of chronic urethritis; Poor urination, urine flow bifurcation, urethral burning discomfort; Under the naked eye, the doctor can see the purplish red granulomatous hyperplasia tissue located in the urethral orifice, mostly spherical or hemispherical. The disease is a benign lesion, which can be cured by electrosurgical excision, urethral dilatation and anti-inflammatory. In addition, such as allergic purpura, epidemic hemorrhagic fever and urinary system adjacent organs, such as appendix, rectum, colon, uterus, ovarian lesions can also cause hematuria.
9. Post-urination white drop
Some young and middle-aged male patients will find milky secretions flowing out of the urethra after urinating. Because this kind of symptom is often accompanied by frequent urination, urethral irritation, waist pain, dizziness, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, impotence and other symptoms, most patients often mistake the phenomenon of white dripping after urination for the omission of semen, and regard it as the root cause of “body deficiency”, so that they carry a burden of thought.
In fact, the white drop after urine is not the omission of semen, but the result of chronic prostatitis. The white secretion flowing out is prostatic fluid, not semen. Excessive drinking, cold, perineal injury, abnormal sexual life, frequent sexual impulse and long-term cycling and horseback riding can lead to prostate congestion and blood stasis, which are important factors contributing to prostate inflammation. Follow the doctor’s advice or take antibiotics, combined with oral Chinese medicine can cure the disease.