According to a published statistics of the top ten causes of death in the world, heart disease ranks second and myocardial infarction is the main culprit that kills people. Myocardial infarction is most common when the temperature drops or when it gets hot.

Why do heart attacks occur?

A heart attack occurs when the heart is starved of blood and oxygen due to a blockage in the cardiovascular system, and the heart muscle begins to necrotize and stop beating normally. As the extent of myocardial necrosis increases, it becomes more difficult to save.
There are three coronary arteries surrounding the surface of the heart, and if any one of them loses its elasticity due to atherosclerosis (the accumulation of fat and other foreign matter inside the blood vessel) and the inner wall of the vessel becomes thicker and harder, the blood vessel may become narrowed and blocked.

Precursor of a disease

Within one month
According to research, more than half of heart attack patients will experience angina, chest tightness and other symptoms of heart discomfort within a month, so if you are in a high-risk group and have the above symptoms, you need to pay special attention.
Some angina patients may also experience numbness in the hands, toothache, stomach pain and other symptoms, which may lead to neglect of heart problems.

5-10 minutes before onset

1.Angina pectoris
2.Chest pain or tightness (feeling like your heart is squeezing)
3.shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
4.irregular heartbeat, fast heartbeat
5.cold sweat
7.nausea and vomiting
8.stomach, shoulder, or back pain
Other symptoms may include a feeling of swelling in the chest or pain in the arms, neck, back, upper or lower jaw.
If these symptoms occur, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. It is worth noting that patients sometimes think that chest pain is caused by gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), but both conditions are caused by smoking, so if they do not seek further medical attention, they may miss the opportunity to treat the condition.

When illness strikes

1.Cold weather
2.Hot and humid weather
3.Large temperature difference between day and night
4.2~3 hours right after waking up
5.In the evening
6.Stress or emotional ups and downs
7.After a large meal
8.Exercise or heavy lifting

Myocardial Infarction First Aid

If you have a heart condition, you should carry nitroglycerin tablets (commonly known as “heart savers”) with you to put under your tongue when you feel angina. If you don’t have nitroglycerin tablets, taking aspirin or drinking plenty of water can also help reduce the rate of blood clotting.
2.Calling emergency services
A heart attack can be fatal in as little as 10 minutes, so it is important that the emergency services arrive in time. If you do not have nitroglycerin tablets with you, call 911 first.
3.Sit or lie down immediately and call for help from anyone around you.
You can also lie down in a semisitting position, whichever is more comfortable for the patient.
4.CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation)
If the patient is already unconscious, bystanders can immediately perform CPR and use an AED to preserve as much of the heart’s function as possible and minimize the extent of cardiac necrosis before the hospital arrives to open the blood vessels.

High risk group

According to research, people with the following risk factors have a higher chance of having a heart attack and need to pay more attention to their health.

  1. High blood pressure
    People with high blood pressure are 2.5 times more likely to develop heart disease than the general population. Hypertension is defined as a blood pressure that is consistently higher than 140 (systolic)/90 (diastolic) mmHg at rest, and the overall blood pressure should be less than 120 (systolic)/80 (diastolic) mmHg.
  2. Diabetes
    Diabetics are twice as likely to develop heart disease as the general population, and they are less likely to notice the pain associated with heart disease than the general population, so they should be more aware of it. Glycated blood pigment of normal people is 4-6%, while diabetic patients should be controlled below 7%.
  3. Hyperlipidemia
    Excess cholesterol in the body will accumulate in the blood vessels, narrowing the diameter of the blood vessels and making the arteries more susceptible to hardening or blockage. However, of all cholesterol, “low-density cholesterol” (LDL) can cause blood vessels to clog, and it is generally recommended that it be less than 130mg/dl.
  4. Obesity
    Because obesity can cause the above symptoms, and these diseases are high risk factors for heart disease.
  5. Smoking
    The nicotine in cigarettes can damage the blood vessels of the heart.
  6. Family history
    Family genes may be a cause of heart attack.
  7. Women after menopause
    After menopause, the secretion of estrogen in the body decreases, which also increases the incidence of cardiovascular disease.
  8. Lack of exercise
    High-density cholesterol (HDL) in the blood helps to remove the fat accumulated in the blood vessels, but those who are physically inactive have lower HDL concentration.
  9. Substance abuse
    For example, amphetamine stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, which affects normal blood pressure and increases the risk of atherosclerosis, while cocaine may cause thrombosis or coronary artery spasms and other adverse cardiac outcomes.

To prevent a heart attack, follow these four steps
According to medical experts, the following methods can help reduce the incidence of heart attack:

  1. Refuse to smoke
    Smoking, whether directly or through secondhand smoke, increases the risk of heart disease; quitting smoking for one year can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease by 50%.
    Recommended reading: Methods to quit smoking, 9 ways to break the withdrawal syndrome
  2. Change your eating habits
    Choose a low-sodium diet to control blood pressure, use natural vegetable oils, and eat more fruits and vegetables, nuts, brown rice, and other foods.
  3. Exercise regularly
    At least three times a week, 30 minutes of moderate physical activity each time, walking, jogging, cycling are good choices.
  4. Active control of the three highs
    If you need to take medication for high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and high blood lipids, you should follow your doctor’s instructions and return to the clinic regularly for follow-up.

Treatment: Seizing the Golden 12 Hours
If a patient has symptoms related to myocardial infarction, he or she should grasp the golden 12-hour rescue period and go to the hospital to complete electrocardiograms and other related tests, and then the doctor will decide which way to reopen the blood vessels.
Method 1: Cardiac catheterization
In terms of invasive treatments, cardiac catheterization is currently performed within 90 minutes of arrival at the hospital to open the blocked blood vessels and restore blood flow. If the blockage is severe, the doctor may even perform coronary artery bypass surgery, which involves taking a blood vessel from another part of the body (e.g., leg vein, internal mammary artery, etc.) and connecting it to the heart, bypassing the blockage and “clearing the way” for blood flow.
In addition, some hospitals may not have enough equipment to perform invasive treatments, and if the patient cannot be referred for surgery within 120 minutes, the physician may administer r-tPA (clot-busting drug).

Method 2: Drug treatment
In terms of medications, the main goal is to reduce the formation of blood clots, which can be divided into
Antiplatelet agents
For example, aspirin, glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa antagonists, clopidogrel, ticagrelor, etc. These medications can prevent platelets from clumping together and forming clots, which can cause blood vessels to become blocked again. These medications prevent platelets from clumping together and forming clots, which can cause blood vessels to become blocked again.
Beta blockers
Beta-blockers slow the heartbeat, decrease the contractility of the heart muscle, and reduce the heart’s need for oxygen. They should not be used for acute heart failure, heart shock, bradycardia, or severe shortness of breath.
These are lipid-lowering drugs that may be used to prevent heart attacks associated with high blood lipids.
ACEI or ARB drugs
ACEIs (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors) can improve abnormal blood pressure and heart failure, but they can cause coughing as a side effect, and doctors may switch to ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers).
Unfractionated heparin (UFH) is an intravenous medication that reduces the risk of blood clots forming.

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